Electrostatically Suspended Gyroscope (ESG)

The Electrostatically Suspended Gyroscope was developed at the University of Illinois Urbana Champaign by physicists Arnold Nordsieck and Howard Knoebel in 1957. The gyroscope was developed out of the need for a gyroscope that would enable nuclear submarines to remain submerged for periods of 30 days at a time without requiring recalibration.  Professor Nordsieck proposed the development of a gyroscope constructed with two axis that utilized two spherical metal rotors constructed from beryllium that would be supported by an electromagnetic field inside a vacuum chamber. The first device was completed in 1962, like many prototypes it was crude and prone to malfunctions. By 1963, the team of scientists had perfected their “star in a bottle”.

Work cited:
Kingery, Alan, Rudy D. Berg, and E. H. Schillinger. Men and Ideas in Engineering; Twelve Histories from Illinois. Urbana: Published for the College of Engineering, U of Illinois, by the U of Illinois, 1967. Print. Image 1